Waste Treatment

Zeolites are hydrated aluminosilicates in a crystal structure, capable of absorbing many different types of gases, odors, moisture, petrochemicals, ammonia, heavy metals, low-level radioactive elements and a multitude of various solutions.

Zeolite’s highly porous atomic structure provides large surface areas on which chemical reactions and cation exchanges can take place. The cavities and channels inside the Zeolite occupy up to 50% of its volume, which enables them to capture particulate contamination down to 4 microns in size.

The main principle of Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) is Ion exchange. It has a natural negative charge which gives it a high cation exchange capacity.


  • Reduces capital and operating expenses.
  • Absorbs bad odors and gases which increases the air quality.
  • 100 % natural and enviromentally friendly.
  • Prevents water, soil and air pollution.
  • Completely safe and user friendly.
  • Resistant to mechanical attrition.
  • Practical and Economical.

Thanks to its eco-friendly structure and low cost, Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) has a wide range of applications:


The high amount of ammonium in the faeces can decrease the efficiency of biogas plants. Zeolite absorbs and holds ammonia and therefore increases the energy production of biogas facilities. It creates a suitable environment for the beneficial bacteria and microorganisms responsible for the biogases harvested in the biogas plants.

Moreover, Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) possess unique adsorption properties for simultaneous biogas purification (H2S removal) and upgrading of methane, it also improves and expands habitats for process-relevant bacteria.

Research concluded that a 10% Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) addition was the balanced amount which presented the optimal efficiency enhancements for biogas generation. Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) could not only inhibit the acidification of digestion liquid but also could enhance the organic acids destruction.


Industrial waste waters contain toxic heavy metal ions such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn). Municipal waste waters contain high amounts of ammonium. These toxic elements must be removed from aqueous solutions before disposal; otherwise they can cause serious environmental problems.

The ion-exchange process is the most attractive, simple and cost effective method to remove the toxic elements in waste water. Natural Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) contains exchangeable cations, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, in its structural framework. Ammonium and heavy metal ions in wastewater are replaced by these cations during ion exchange. Absorbents like Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) are the future in environmental applications.


  • Removes heavy metals and other harmful substances
  • Significantly reduces ammonia (NH 4+ ) levels
  • Reduces nutrients in the effluent.
  • Increases effluent quality.
  • Decreases COD and BOD parameters.
  • Reduces NO3 and H2S levels
  • Improves water clarity (suspended solids reduction)
  • Increases dissolved oxygen (DO) content
  • Stabilizes the PH level
  • Restricts growth of harmful bacteria and blue-green weeds
  • Minimizes chemical (polymers, alum, etc.) and polyelectrolyte usage and costs
  • Increases treatment plant capacity

Sources of Heavy Metals & Contaminants

  • Electroplating Industry – chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe).
  • Leather Industry – chromium (Cr), etc.
  • Metal Working Industry – copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), etc.
  • Textile and Dye Industry – Dye.
  • Solid Waste Treatment – Ammonium.
  • Battery Industry – lead (Pb), arsenic (As), etc.
  • Ceramic & Glass Industry – Metals,
  • Food Industry – Nutrients,



Sanitary landfill is the most widely used method for managing municipal solid waste. The major problems caused by land filling are related to the generation of highly contaminated leachates that pose long-term environmental problems. Leachate, containing various hazardous pollutants, is produced in large quantities by landfills. Among these pollutants ammonium is found in high concentrations.

Zeolite is an influential and a low-cost alternative adsorbent for the removal of NH4- N and heavy metals:

  • Removes ammonium and heavy metals.
  • Reduces nutrients in the effluent. Increases effluent quality.
  • Decreases COD and BOD parameters.
  • Provides a barrier between landfill and the environment.
  • Prevents ground water contamination through leachates.

Hazardous Pollutants Inside Municipal Solid Waste

  • Inorganic compounds, like NH4-N, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, SO4, and Cl.
  • Heavy metals, such as Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Zn.
  • Dissolved organic matter.
  • Xenobiotik organic materials.



The elimination of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a significant problem. Composting is one of the most common treatments of sewage sludge; however toxic compounds and heavy metal concentrations are usually high and the sludge is not suitable for disposal or for agricultural applications.

Another problem during sludge composting is the release of ammonia due to the decomposition of nitrogenous material (proteins and amino acids). There is severe ammonia emission during the thermophilic process while composting.

The addition of Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) into sludge provide several benefits during the composting process:

  • Removes ammonium and heavy metals.
  • Reduces nutrients in the effluent.
  • Increases effluent quality.
  • Solidifies and stabilizes sludge.
  • Enables for transportation and recycling.
  • Reduces transportation and recycling costs.
  • Stabilizes the humidity.



Carbon dioxide, sulfuric compositions, acetylene and ammonia can be discharged to the air through flue gases. Even dioxins and furans, volatile heavy metals and toxins can be present in these gases. Natural Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) has exceptional characteristics making it the right choice for air treatment applications:

  • Absorbs formaldehyde, chloroforms, N, CO2, CO, SO2, H2S gases.
  • Removes heavy metals, dioxin and furans.
  • Applicable for steel mills, facility stacks, gas plants, landfills, sewage treatment facilities, etc.
  • Removes gaseous ammonia and odors.
  • Filters the dust particles mechanically.
  • Protects and lengthens the lifespan of filters.



Caesium (Cs) is a very hazardous nuclide which is present in high amounts inlow level radioactive waste and in waste repositories. The Zeolites (Clinoptilolite) pore size is close to the diameter of hydrated Cesium. Therefore, it has a high selectivity for Cs and similar hydrated cations like Uranium and Strontium. It has the ability to hold and retain radioactive fission products.

Zeolite was widely used after the Chernobyl and then after the Fukushima nuclear disaster to trap and hold active radioactive elements into the Zeolites cage structure. Zeolites are used as a reactive barrier at the waste repositories and at nuclear plants.

  • Provides a barrier for low level radiation.
  • Provides radiation stability.
  • Removes Uranium, Cesium and Strontium.
  • Reduces the mobility of Cs.
  • Applicable in the construction of nuclear power plants and landfills as a buffer/barrier material to contain environmental releases of this fission product.
  • As a silicate, Zeolite reacts readily with cement and glass binding systems to safely contain and entrap radioactive waste in a cementitious matrix.



Zeolite has a very large surface area and absorption capacity. It is safely used as an absorbent grit after industrial accidents, oil spills, chemicals leaks and leachates.

  • Quickly absorbs spills.
  • High absorption capacity.
  • Eleminates bad odors
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